Tao Te Ching / 老子道徳経 — на английском и японском языках

Английско-японская книга-билингва

Lao Tzu

Tao Te Ching

老子

老子道徳経

1. The Way

一章

The Way that can be experienced is not true;
The world that can be constructed is not true.
The Way manifests all that happens and may happen;
The world represents all that exists and may exist.
To experience without intention is to sense the world;
To experience with intention is to anticipate the world.
These two experiences are indistinguishable;
Their construction differs but their effect is the same.
Beyond the gate of experience flows the Way,
Which is ever greater and more subtle than the world.

道の道ふべきは常道にはあらず。名の名づくべきは常名にはあらず。無は天地の始めと名づくべく、有は萬物の母と名づくべきなり。故に、常無にして以てその妙を觀んと欲し、常有にして以てその徼を觀んと欲せよ。この兩者は同じきも、出でては名を異にするなり。同なるこれを玄と謂ふも、玄のまた玄にして、衆妙の門なり。

2. Abstraction

二章

When beauty is abstracted
Then ugliness has been implied;
When good is abstracted
Then evil has been implied.
So alive and dead are abstracted from nature,
Difficult and easy abstracted from progress,
Long and short abstracted from contrast,
High and low abstracted from depth,
Song and speech abstracted from melody,
After and before abstracted from sequence.
The sage experiences without abstraction,
And accomplishes without action;
He accepts the ebb and flow of things,
Nurtures them, but does not own them,
And lives, but does not dwell.

天下はみな美の美たることを知るも、これ惡なるのみ。みな善の善たることを知るも、これ不善なるのみ。故に、有無は相生じ、難易は相成り、長短は相形はれ、高下は相傾き、音聲は相和し、前後は相隨ふなり。是を以て、聖人は無爲の事に處り、不言の敎を行ふ。萬物は作るも辭せず。生ずるも有せず。爲すも恃まず。功成るも居らず。それ惟居らず。是を以て去らざるなり。

3. Without Action

三章

Not praising the worthy prevents contention,
Not esteeming the valuable prevents theft,
Not displaying the beautiful prevents desire.
In this manner the sage governs people:
Emptying their minds,
Filling their bellies,
Weakening their ambitions,
And strengthening their bones.
If people lack knowledge and desire
Then they can not act;
If no action is taken
Harmony remains.

賢を尙ばざれば、民をして爭はざらしめ、得がたきの貨を貴ばざれば、民をして盗たらざらしめ、欲すべきを見さざれば、心をして亂れざらしむるなり。是を以て、聖人の治むるや、その心を虛にし、その腹を實にし、その志を弱にし、その骨を强にし、常に民をして知なく、欲なからしめ、かの知者をして敢てなさざらしむるなり。無爲をなさば治まらざるなし。

4. Limitless

四章

The Way is a limitless vessel;
Used by the self, it is not filled by the world;
It cannot be cut, knotted, dimmed or stilled;
Its depths are hidden, ubiquitous and eternal;
I don’t know where it comes from;
It comes before nature.

道は冲にしてこれを用ふるも、或は盈ず。淵乎として万物の宗に似たり。その鋭を挫き、その紛を解き、その光を和げ、その塵に同うし、湛乎として或は存するに似たり。吾は誰の子たるかを知らず。帝の先に象たり。

5. Nature

五章

Nature is not kind;
It treats all things impartially.
The Sage is not kind,
And treats all people impartially.
Nature is like a bellows,
Empty, yet never ceasing its supply.
The more it moves, the more it yields;
So the sage draws upon experience
And cannot be exhausted.

天地は不仁ならんや、萬物を以て芻狗となすほどに。聖人は不仁ならんや、百姓を以て芻狗となすほどに。天地の間は、それ猶ほ槖籥のごときか。虚にして屈せず。動けばいよいよ出づ。多言なればしばしば窮すれば、中を守るにはしかず。

6. Experience

六章

Experience is a riverbed,
Its source hidden, forever flowing:
Its entrance, the root of the world,
The Way moves within it:
Draw upon it; it will not run dry.

谷神は死せず。これを玄牝と謂ふ。玄牝の門、これを天地の根と謂ふ。綿綿として存するがごとくして、これを用ふるも勤れず。

7. Complete

七章

Nature is complete because it does not serve itself.
The sage places himself after and finds himself before,
Ignores his desire and finds himself content.
He is complete because he does not serve himself.

天は長く地は久し。天地のよく長く且つ久しき所以のものは、その自ら生ぜざるを以てなり。故によく長生す。是を以て、聖人はその身を後にするも而も身は先だち、その身を外にするも而も身の存するは、その無私なるを以てにあらずや。故に、よくその私をなすなり。

8. Water

八章

The best of man is like water,
Which benefits all things, and does not contend with them,
Which flows in places that others disdain,
Where it is in harmony with the Way.
So the sage:
Lives within nature,
Thinks within the deep,
Gives within impartiality,
Speaks within trust,
Governs within order,
Crafts within ability,
Acts within opportunity.
He does not contend, and none contend against him.

上善は水のごとし。水はよく万物を利して爭はず、衆人の悪む所に處る。故に道に幾し。居は善地、心は善淵、與すれば善仁、言へば善信、政は善治、事は善能、動けば善時なり。それたゞ爭はず、故に尤なし。

9. Retire

九章

Fill a cup to its brim and it is easily spilled;
Temper a sword to its hardest and it is easily broken;
Amass the greatest treasure and it is easily stolen;
Claim credit and honour and you easily fall;
Retire once your purpose is achieved — this is natural.

持してこれを盈たさんよりは、その已むにしかず。揣つてこれを銳くすれば、長く保つべからず。金玉堂に滿つるも、これを能く守ることなし。富貴にして驕れば、自からその咎を遺さん。功成り名遂げて身退くは、天の道なる載。

10. Harmony

十章

Embracing the Way, you become embraced;
Breathing gently, you become newborn;
Clearing your mind, you become clear;
Nurturing your children, you become impartial;
Opening your heart, you become accepted;
Accepting the world, you embrace the Way.
Bearing and nurturing,
Creating but not owning,
Giving without demanding,
This is harmony.

營魄一を抱きて、よく離るゝことなからんか。気を専らにし柔を致して、よく嬰児の如くならんか。滌除玄覽して、よく疵なからんか。民を愛し国を治むるには、よく無爲なからんか。天門開闔して、よく雌たらんか。明白四達して、よく無知ならんか。これを生じこれを畜ふ。生ずるも有せず、爲すも恃まず。長ずるも宰せず。これを玄德と謂ふ。

11. Tools

十一章

Thirty spokes meet at a nave;
Because of the hole we may use the wheel.
Clay is moulded into a vessel;
Because of the hollow we may use the cup.
Walls are built around a hearth;
Because of the doors we may use the house.
Thus tools come from what exists,
But use from what does not.

三十輻は一轂をともにす。その無なるに當つて、車の用あり。埴を埏して以て器をなす。その無なるに當つて、器の用あり。戸牖を鑿つて以て室となす。その無なるに當つて、室の用あり。故に、有の以て利たるは、無の以て用をなす(が故)なり。

12. Substance

十二章

Too much colour blinds the eye,
Too much music deafens the ear,
Too much taste dulls the palate,
Too much play maddens the mind,
Too much desire tears the heart.
In this manner the sage cares for people:
He provides for the belly, not for the senses;
He ignores abstraction and holds fast to substance.

五色は人の目をして盲ならしめ、五音は人の耳をして聾ならしめ、五味は人の口をして爽ならしめ、馳騁田獵は、人の心をして發狂せしめ、得がたきの貨は、人の行をしてを妨はしむ。是を以て、聖人は腹をなして目をなさず。故に、彼を去りて此を取るなり。

13. Self

十三章

Both praise and blame cause concern,
For they bring people hope and fear.
The object of hope and fear is the self -
For, without self, to whom may fortune and disaster occur?
Therefore,
Who distinguishes himself from the world may be given the world,
But who regards himself as the world may accept the world.

寵は辱なり驚くが如し。貴は大患なり身のごとし。何をか竈〔ママ〕は辱なり驚くがごとしと謂ふ。寵を上たり、辱を下たるも、これを得るに驚くがごとく、これを失ふにも驚くがごとし。これを寵は辱なり、驚くがごとしと謂ふ。何をか貴は大患なり身のごとしと謂ふ。吾に大患ある所以は、吾が身を有するがためなり。吾に身なきに及んで、吾に何の患かあらん。故に、貴ぶには身を以てして、天下を爲むる者には、則ち以て天下を寄すべし。愛するには身を以てして、天下を爲むる者には、則ち以て天下を託すべし。

14. Mystery

十四章

Looked at but cannot be seen — it is beneath form;
Listened to but cannot be heard — it is beneath sound;
Held but cannot be touched — it is beneath feeling;
These depthless things evade definition,
And blend into a single mystery.
In its rising there is no light,
In its falling there is no darkness,
A continuous thread beyond description,
Lining what can not occur;
Its form formless,
Its image nothing,
Its name silence;
Follow it, it has no back,
Meet it, it has no face.
Attend the present to deal with the past;
Thus you grasp the continuity of the Way,
Which is its essence.

これを視れども見えず、名づけて夷と曰ふ。これを聽けども聞えず、名づけて希と曰ふ。これを搏へんとするも得ず、名づけて微と曰ふ。その三つの者は、以て致詰すべからず。故に混じて一となす。その上は皦かならず。その下は昧からず。縄縄兮として名づくべからずして、無物に復歸す。これを無狀の狀、無物の象と謂ふ。これを惚恍と謂ふ。これを迎ふるもその首を見ず。これに隨ふもその後を見ず。古の道をとりて、以て今の有を御し、よく古始を知る。これを道紀と謂ふ。

15. Enlightenment

十五章

The enlightened possess understanding
So profound they can not be understood.
Because they cannot be understood
I can only describe their appearance:
Cautious as one crossing thin ice,
Undecided as one surrounded by danger,
Modest as one who is a guest,
Unbounded as melting ice,
Genuine as unshaped wood,
Broad as a valley,
Seamless as muddy water.
Who stills the water that the mud may settle,
Who seeks to stop that he may travel on,
Who desires less than may transpire,
Decays, but will not renew.

古の善く士たる者は、微妙玄通、深くして識るべからず。それただ識るべからず。故に强ひてこれが容をなさば、豫兮として冬に川を渉るがごとく、猶兮として四隣を畏るゝがごとく、儼兮としてそれ客たるが如く、渙兮として冰のまさに釈けんとするがごとく、敦兮としてそれ樸のごとく、曠兮としてそれ谷の若く、混兮としてそれ濁るがごとし。孰かよく濁りて、以て静かにして徐に清からん。孰かよく安んじて、以て動きて徐に生ぜん。この道を保つ者は、盈つることを欲せず。それただ盈たず。故によく敝れて新たに成さず。

16. Decay and Renewal

十六章

Empty the self completely;
Embrace perfect peace.
The world will rise and move;
Watch it return to rest.
All the flourishing things
Will return to their source.
This return is peaceful;
It is the flow of nature,
An eternal decay and renewal.
Accepting this brings enlightenment,
Ignoring this brings misery.
Who accepts nature’s flow becomes all-cherishing;
Being all-cherishing he becomes impartial;
Being impartial he becomes magnanimous;
Being magnanimous he becomes natural;
Being natural he becomes one with the Way;
Being one with the Way he becomes immortal:
Though his body will decay, the Way will not.

虛を致すこと極まり、靜を守ること篤ければ、萬物ならび作るも、吾は以て復を觀る。それ物は芸芸たるも、おのおのその根に歸す。根に歸するを靜と曰ひ、是を命に復すと謂ひ、命に復するを常と曰ひ、常を知るを明と曰ふ。常を知らざれば、妄作して凶なり。常を知れば容。容なれば乃ち公。公なれば乃ち王。王なれば乃ち天。天なれば乃ち道。道なれば乃ち久しくして、身を没するも殆からざるなり。

17. Rulers

十七章

The best rulers are scarcely known by their subjects;
The next best are loved and praised;
The next are feared;
The next despised:
They have no faith in their people,
And their people become unfaithful to them.
When the best rulers achieve their purpose
Their subjects claim the achievement as their own.

太上には、下これあることを知らず。その次には、これに親しみこれを譽む。その次には、これを畏れ、その次には、これを侮る。故に、信足らざれば、信ぜざることあるなり。猶兮としてそれ言を貴びたり。功成り事遂げて、百姓皆我が自然なりと謂ふ。

18. Hypocrisy

十八章

When the Way is forgotten
Duty and justice appear;
Then knowledge and wisdom are born
Along with hypocrisy.
When harmonious relationships dissolve
Then respect and devotion arise;
When a nation falls to chaos
Then loyalty and patriotism are born.

大道󠄃廢れて、仁義あり。智慧󠄄出で、大僞あり。六親和せずして、孝慈あり。國家昏亂して、忠臣あるなり。

19. Simplify

十九章

If we could abolish knowledge and wisdom
Then people would profit a hundredfold;
If we could abolish duty and justice
Then harmonious relationships would form;
If we could abolish artifice and profit
Then waste and theft would disappear.
Yet such remedies treat only symptoms
And so they are inadequate.
People need personal remedies:
Reveal your naked self and embrace your original nature;
Bind your self-interest and control your ambition;
Forget your habits and simplify your affairs.

聖を絕ち智を棄つれば、民の利は百倍せん。仁を絕ち義を棄つれば、民は孝慈に復せん。巧を絕ち利を棄つれば、盜賊はあることなからん。この三の者は以爲に文のみにして未だ足らざるなり。故に屬する所あらしめよ。素を見はし樸を抱き、私を少なくし欲を寡なからしめよ。

20. Wandering

二十章

What is the difference between assent and denial?
What is the difference between beautiful and ugly?
What is the difference between fearsome and afraid?
The people are merry as if at a magnificent party
Or playing in the park at springtime,
But I am tranquil and wandering,
Like a newborn before it learns to smile,
Alone, with no true home.
The people have enough and to spare,
Where I have nothing,
And my heart is foolish,
Muddled and cloudy.
The people are bright and certain,
Where I am dim and confused;
The people are clever and wise,
Where I am dull and ignorant;
Aimless as a wave drifting over the sea,
Attached to nothing.
The people are busy with purpose,
Where I am impractical and rough;
I do not share the peoples’ cares
But I am fed at nature’s breast.

學を絶たば憂なからん。唯と阿との、相去ることはいくばくぞ。善と悪と、相去ることはいかん。人の畏るる所は、畏れざるべからざるも、荒兮としてそれ未だ央らざるかな。衆人は熙熙として、太牢を享くるが如く、春臺に登るが如きも、我は獨り泊兮としてそれ未だ兆さず、嬰児の未だ孩せざるが如く、乘乘兮として帰する所なきがごとし。衆人はみな餘ありて、しかも我は獨り遺れたるがごときも、我は愚人の心ならんや。沌沌兮たるのみ。俗人はみな昭昭たるも、我は獨り昏きがごとし。俗人はみな察察たるも、我は獨り悶悶たり。澹兮として海のごとく、飂兮として止まる所なきがごとし。衆人はみな以することあるも、しかも我は獨り頑かつ鄙なり。我は人に異ならんことを欲して、而して食母を貴ぶなり。

21. Accept

二十一章

Harmony is only in following the Way.
The Way is without form or quality,
But expresses all forms and qualities;
The Way is hidden and implicate,
But expresses all of nature;
The Way is unchanging,
But expresses all motion.
Beneath sensation and memory
The Way is the source of all the world.
How can I understand the source of the world?
By accepting.

孔德の容は、ただ道にこれ從ふなり。道の物たる、これ恍たりこれ惚たり。恍兮たり惚兮たるも、その中に象有り。恍兮たり惚兮たるも、その中に物有り。窈兮たり冥兮たるも、その中に精有り。その精甚だ眞にして、その中に信有り。古より今に及びて、その名は去らず。以て衆甫を閲ぶ。吾れなにを以て衆甫の然るを知れるや。これを以てなり。

22. Home

二十二章

Accept and you become whole,
Bend and you straighten,
Empty and you fill,
Decay and you renew,
Want and you acquire,
Fulfill and you become confused.
The sage accepts the world
As the world accepts the Way;
He does not display himself, so is clearly seen,
Does not justify himself, so is recognized,
Does not boast, so is credited,
Does not pride himself, so endures,
Does not contend, so none contend against him.
The ancients said, “Accept and you become whole”,
Once whole, the world is as your home.

曲なれば則ち全く、枉なれば則ち直く、窪なれば則ち盈ち、敝ければ則ち新しく、少ければ則ち得、多ければ則ち惑はん。是を以て、聖人は一を抱きて、天下の式となる。自ら見さず、故に明かなり。自ら是とせず、故に彰る。自ら伐らず、故に功あり。自ら矜らず。故に長し。それただ爭はず。故に天下能くこれと爭ふことなし。古の謂はゆる、曲なれば則ち全しとは、豈虚言ならんや。誠に全くして而してこれに歸するなり。

23. Words

二十三章

Nature says only a few words:
High wind does not last long,
Nor does heavy rain.
If nature’s words do not last
Why should those of man?
Who accepts harmony, becomes harmonious.
Who accepts loss, becomes lost.
For who accepts harmony, the Way harmonizes with him,
And who accepts loss, the Way cannot find.

希言は自然なり。故に、飄風は朝を終へず。驟雨は日を終へず。孰かこれをなすものぞ。天地なり。天地すら尙ほ久しきこと能はず。而るを況や人に於てをや。故に、道に従事する者は、道に同じうし、德者とは德に同じうし、失者とは失に同じうす。道に同じうする者は、道もまたこれを得るを樂み、德に同じうする者は、德もまたこれを得るを樂み、失に同じうする者は、失もまたこれを得るを樂むなり。信足ざれば、信ぜざることあり。

24. Indulgence

二十四章

Straighten yourself and you will not stand steady;
Display yourself and you will not be clearly seen;
Justify yourself and you will not be respected;
Promote yourself and you will not be believed;
Pride yourself and you will not endure.
These behaviours are wasteful, indulgent,
And so they attract disfavour;
Harmony avoids them.

跂つ者は立たず。跨ぐ者は行かず。自から見はす者は明かならず。自から是とする者は彰はれず。自から伐る者は功なし。自から矜る者は長からず。その道にありてや、餘食贅行と曰ひ、物或はこれを悪む。故に有道者は處ざるなり。

25. Beneath Abstraction

二十五章

There is a mystery,
Beneath abstraction,
Silent, depthless,
Alone, unchanging,
Ubiquitous and liquid,
The mother of nature.
It has no name, but I call it “the Way”;
It has no limit, but I call it “limitless”.
Being limitless, it flows away forever;
Flowing away forever, it returns to my self:
The Way is limitless,
So nature is limitless,
So the world is limitless,
And so I am limitless.
For I am abstracted from the world,
The world from nature,
Nature from the Way,
And the Way from what is beneath abstraction.

物ありて混成し、天地に先だつて生ぜり。寂兮たり寞兮たり。獨立して改めず、周行して殆からず。以て天下の母たるべし。吾はその名を知らざるも、これに字して道と曰ひ、强ひてこれが名を為して大と曰ひ、大を逝と曰ひ、逝を遠と曰ひ、遠を反と曰ふ。故に、道は大、天も大、地も大、王も又大なり。域中に四大ありて、王はその一に居る。人は地に法とり、地は天に法とり、天は道に法とり、道は自然に法とるなり。

26. Calm

二十六章

Gravity is the source of lightness,
Calm, the master of haste.
A lone traveller will journey all day, watching over his belongings;
Yet once safe in his bed he will lose them in sleep.
The captain of a great vessel will not act lightly or hastily.
Acting lightly, he loses sight of the world,
Acting hastily, he loses control of himself.
A captain can not treat his great ship as a small boat;
Rather than glitter like jade
He must stand like stone.

重は輕の根たり、靜は躁の君たり。是を以て、聖人は終日行けども、而も輜重を離れず。榮觀ありと雖も、燕処して超然たり。如何ぞ萬乘の主にして、而も身を以て天下に輕くせるぞ。輕ければ則ち臣を失ひ、躁しければ則ち君を失はん。

27. Perfection

二十七章

The perfect traveller leaves no trail to be followed;
The perfect speaker leaves no question to be answered;
The perfect accountant leaves no working to be completed;
The perfect container leaves no lock to be closed;
The perfect knot leaves no end to be ravelled.
So the sage nurtures all men
And abandons no one.
He accepts everything
And rejects nothing.
He attends to the smallest details.
So the strong must guide the weak,
For the weak are raw material to the strong.
If the guide is not respected,
Or the material is not cared for,
Confusion will result, no matter how clever one is.
This is the secret of perfection:
When raw wood is carved, it becomes a tool;
When a man is employed, he becomes a tool;
The perfect carpenter leaves no wood to be carved.

善行には轍迹なし。善言には瑕謫なし。善計には籌索を用ひず。善閉には関楗なくして、而も開くべからず。善結には縄約なくして、而も解くべからず。是を以て、聖人は常に善く人を救ふ。故に棄人なし。常に善く物を救ふ。故に棄物なし。是を襲明と謂ふ。故に、善人は不善人の師にして、不善人は善人の資なり。その師を貴ばず、その資を愛せざれば、知たりと雖も大に迷へる。これを要妙と謂ふ。

28. Becoming

二十八章

Using the male, being female,
Being the entrance of the world,
You embrace harmony
And become as a newborn.
Using strength, being weak,
Being the root of the world,
You complete harmony
And become as unshaped wood.
Using the light, being dark,
Being the world,
You perfect harmony
And return to the Way.

その雄を知りて、その雌を守れば、天下の谿となる。天下の谿となれば、常德は離れずして、嬰兒に復歸す。その白を知り、その黑を守れば、天下の式と為る。天下の式となれば、常の德は忒はずして、無極に復歸す。その榮を知り、その辱を守れば、天下の谷となる。天下の谷となれば、常德は乃ち足つて、樸に復歸す。樸散ずれば則ち器となる。聖人これを用ひて、則ち官長となる。故に、大制にして割かざるなり。

29. Ambition

二十九章

Those who wish to change the world
According with their desire
Cannot succeed.
The world is shaped by the Way;
It cannot be shaped by the self.
Trying to change it, you damage it;
Trying to possess it, you lose it.
So some will lead, while others follow.
Some will be warm, others cold
Some will be strong, others weak.
Some will get where they are going
While others fall by the side of the road.
So the sage will be neither wasteful nor violent.

天下を取つて、これを爲めんと將欲するも、吾はその得ざるを見るのみ。天下は神器なれば、爲むべからざるなり。爲めんとする者はこれを敗り、執らんとする者はこれを失はん。凡そ物は、或は行き、或は隨ひ、或は噓き、或いは吹き、或は强くし、或は羸くし、或は載り、或いは墮る。是を以て聖人は甚を去り、奢を去り、泰を去るなり。

30. Violence

三十章

Powerful men are well advised not to use violence,
For violence has a habit of returning;
Thorns and weeds grow wherever an army goes,
And lean years follow a great war.
A general is well advised
To achieve nothing more than his orders:
Not to take advantage of his victory.
Nor to glory, boast or pride himself;
To do what is dictated by necessity,
But not by choice.
For even the strongest force will weaken with time,
And then its violence will return, and kill it.

道を以て人主を佐くる者は、兵を以て天下に强くせず。その事は還るを好むなり。師の處りし所には、荊棘生じ、大軍の後には、必ず凶年あり。故に、善者は果して已む。敢て强を取らず。果して矜ることなかれ。果して伐ることなかれ。果して驕ることなかれ。果して已むを得ざれ。果して强なることなかれ。物は壯なれば則ち老ゆ。これを不道と謂ふ。不道なれば早く已むなり。

31. Armies

三十一章

Armies are tools of violence;
They cause men to hate and fear.
The sage will not join them.
His purpose is creation;
Their purpose is destruction.
Weapons are tools of violence,
Not of the sage;
He uses them only when there is no choice,
And then calmly, and with tact,
For he finds no beauty in them.
Whoever finds beauty in weapons
Delights in the slaughter of men;
And who delights in slaughter
Cannot content himself with peace.
So slaughters must be mourned
And conquest celebrated with a funeral.

夫れ佳兵は不祥の器にして、物或はこれを悪む。故に、有道者は處らざるなり。是を以て、君子は、居るには則ち左を貴び、兵を用ふるには則ち右を貴ぶ。兵は不祥の器にして、君子の器にあらず。やむを得ずしてこれを用ふるも、恬淡を上となし、勝つとも而も美とせざるなり。これを美とする者は、これ殺人を楽むなり。殺人を楽む者は、則ち志を天下に得べからず。(故に、吉事には左を尙び、凶事には右を尙ぶ。是を以て、偏将軍は左に處り、上将軍は右に處る。喪禮を以てこれに處るを言ふなり。)人を殺すことの衆多なれば、則ち悲哀を以てこれを泣き、戰に勝てば、則ち喪禮を以てこれに處るなり。

32. Shapes

三十二章

The Way has no true shape,
And therefore none can control it.
If a ruler could control the Way
All things would follow
In harmony with his desire,
And sweet rain would fall,
Effortlessly slaking every thirst.
The Way is shaped by use,
But then the shape is lost.
Do not hold fast to shapes
But let sensation flow into the world
As a river courses down to the sea.

道は常にして名なく、朴なりにして小なりと雖も、天下に敢て臣とせず。侯王もしよく守らば、万物はまさに自ら賓せんとす。天地は相合ひて、以て甘露を降し、民はこれを令するなくして、而も自から均しからん。はじめて制して名あり。名も亦すでにあるも、それ亦止まることを知らんとす。止まることを知るは、殆からざる所以なり。道の天下にあるを譬ふれば、猶ほ川谷の江海に於けるがごときなり。

33. Virtues

三十三章

Who understands the world is learned;
Who understands the self is enlightened.
Who conquers the world has strength;
Who conquers the self has harmony.
Who is determined has purpose;
Who is contented has wealth.
Who defends his home may long endure;
Who surrenders his home may long survive it.

人を知るものは智にして、自らを知るものは明なり。人に勝つ者は力ありて、自らに勝つ者は强なり。足ることを知るものは富み、行ひを强むるものは志を有つ。その所を失はざる者は久しく、死するも亡びざるものは壽なり。

34. Control

三十四章

The Way flows and ebbs, creating and destroying,
Implementing all the world, attending to the tiniest details,
Claiming nothing in return.
It nurtures all things,
Though it does not control them;
It has no intention,
So it seems inconsequential.
It is the substance of all things;
Though it does not control them;
It has no exception,
So it seems all-important.
The sage would not control the world;
He is in harmony with the world.

大道は汎兮として、其れ左右すべし。萬物はこれに恃みて、以て生ずるも辭せず。功あるも名とし有せず。萬物を愛養して、而も主とならず。小と名くべし。萬物は歸すれども、而も主とならず。名づけて大となすべし。是を以て、聖人は終に自ら大とならず。故によくその大を成すなり。

35. Peace

三十五章

If you offer music and food
Strangers may stop with you;
But if you accord with the Way
All the people of the world will keep you
In safety, health, community, and peace.
The Way lacks art and flavour;
It can neither be seen nor heard,
But its benefit cannot be exhausted.

大象を執れば天下は往く。往くも而も害せず。安平泰なり。楽と餌とには、過客も止まるも、道の口より出づるは、淡乎としてそれ味ひなし。これを視れども見るに足らず、これを聽けども聞くに足らざるも、これを用ふれば旣󠄁すべからず。

36. Opposition

三十六章

To reduce someone’s influence, first expand it;
To reduce someone’s force, first increase it;
To overthrow someone, first exalt them;
To take from someone, first give to them.
This is the subtlety by which the weak overcome the strong:
Fish should not leave their depths,
And swords should not leave their scabbards.

これを歙めんと將欲すれば、必ず固くこれを張れよ。これを弱めんと將欲すれば、必ず固くこれを强くせよ。これを廃せんと將欲すれば、必ず固くこれを興せよ。これを奪はんと將欲すれば、必ず固くこれを與へよ。これを微明と謂ふなり。柔は剛に勝ち、弱は强に勝つ。魚は淵より脱すべからず。國の利器は以て人に示すべからず。

37. Tranquillity

三十七章

The Way takes no action, but leaves nothing undone.
When you accept this
The world will flourish,
In harmony with nature.
Nature does not possess desire;
Without desire, the heart becomes quiet;
In this manner the whole world is made tranquil.

道は常にして爲すことなきも、而も爲さざることなし。侯王もしよく守らば、萬物はまさに自から化せんとす。化して作らんとすれば、吾はこれを鎭するに無名の樸を以てせんとす。無名の樸も、亦まさに欲せざらんとす。欲せずして以て靜なれば、天下はまさに自から正しからんとす。

38. Ritual

三十八章

Well established hierarchies are not easily uprooted;
Closely held beliefs are not easily released;
So ritual enthralls generation after generation.
Harmony does not care for harmony, and so is naturally attained;
But ritual is intent upon harmony, and so can not attain it.
Harmony neither acts nor reasons;
Love acts, but without reason;
Justice acts to serve reason;
But ritual acts to enforce reason.
When the Way is lost, there remains harmony;
When harmony is lost, there remains love;
When love is lost, there remains justice;
But when justice is lost, there remains ritual.
Ritual is the end of compassion and honesty,
The beginning of confusion;
Belief is a colourful hope or fear,
The beginning of folly.
The sage goes by harmony, not by hope;
He dwells in the fruit, not the flower;
He accepts substance, and ignores abstraction.

上德は德とせず。是を以て德あり。下德は德を失はざらんとす。是を以て德なし。上德は爲すことなくして、而も爲さざることなし。下德はこれを爲して、而も以て爲すことなし。上仁はこれを爲して、而も以て爲すことなし。上義はこれをなして、而も以て爲すことあり。上禮はこれを爲して、而もこれに應ずることなければ、則ち臂を攘げてこれを仍く。故に、道を失つて而して後に德あり。德を失つて而して後に仁あり。仁を失つて而して後に義あり。義を失つて而して後に禮あり。夫れ禮は、忠信の薄にして、而して亂の首なり。前識者は、道の華にして、而して愚の始なり。是を以て大丈夫は、その厚きに處つて、その薄きに處らず。その實に處つて、その華に處らず。故に、彼を去つて此れを取るなり。

39. Support

三十九章

In mythical times all things were whole:
All the sky was clear,
All the earth was stable,
All the mountains were firm,
All the riverbeds were full,
All of nature was fertile,
And all the rulers were supported.
But, losing clarity, the sky tore;
Losing stability, the earth split;
Losing strength, the mountains sank;
Losing water, the riverbeds cracked;
Losing fertility, nature disappeared;
And losing support, the rulers fell.
Rulers depend upon their subjects,
The noble depend upon the humble;
So rulers call themselves orphaned, hungry and alone,
To win the people’s support.

昔は一を得たる者なり。天は一を得て以て淸く、地は一を得て以て寧く、神は一を得て以て靈となり、谷は一を得て以て盈ち、萬物は一を得て以て生じ、侯王は一を得て以て天下の正となる。そのこれを致すは一なり。天淸きを以てことなければ、將恐らくは裂けん。地寧きを以てすることなければ、將恐らくは發せん。神靈を以てすることなければ、將恐らくは歇ん。谷盈つるを以てすることなければ、將恐らくは竭きん。萬物生ずるを以てすることなければ、將恐らくは滅せん。侯王正しきを以てすくことなく、而も貴高ならば、將恐らくは蹙れん。故に、貴は賤を以て本となし、高きは下きを以て基となすなり。是を以て侯王は自から孤寡不穀と謂ふ。これ、その賤を以て本となすか、あらずや。故に、輿を數ふることを致せば輿なし。琭琭として玉の如く、珞珞として石の如くなるを欲せず。

40. Motion and Use

四十章

The motion of the Way is to return;
The use of the Way is to accept;
All things come from the Way,
And the Way comes from nothing.

反は道の動にして、弱は道の用なり。天地萬物は、有より生じ、有は無より生ず。

41. Following

四十一章

When the great man learns the Way, he follows it with diligence;
When the common man learns the Way, he follows it on occasion;
When the mean man learns the Way, he laughs out loud;
Those who do not laugh, do not learn at all.
Therefore it is said:
Who understands the Way seems foolish;
Who progresses on the Way seems to fail;
Who follows the Way seems to wander.
For the finest harmony appears plain;
The brightest truth appears coloured;
The richest character appears incomplete;
The bravest heart appears meek;
The simplest nature appears inconstant.
The square, perfected, has no corner;
Music, perfected, has no melody;
Love, perfected, has no climax;
Art, perfected, has no meaning.
The Way can be neither sensed nor known:
It transmits sensation and transcends knowledge.

上士は道を聞けば、勤めてこれを行ふ。中士は道を聞けば、存るが若く亡ずるが若し。下士は道を聞けば、大いにこれを笑ふ。笑はざれば以て道となすにたらず。故に、建言者にこれあり。明道は昧きが若く、進道は退くが若く、夷道は纇のが若く、上德は谷の若く、太白は辱の若く、廣德は足らざるが若く、建德は偸れるが若く、質直は渝るが若く、大方は隅なく、大器は晩成し、大音は希聲にして、大象は無形なりと。道は隱れて名なし。それ唯道は善く貸して且く成すなり。

42. Mind

四十二章

The Way bears sensation,
Sensation bears memory,
Sensation and memory bear abstraction,
And abstraction bears all the world;
Each thing in the world bears feeling and doing,
And, imbued with mind, harmony with the Way.
As others have taught, so do I teach,
“Who loses harmony opposes nature”;
This is the root of my teaching.

道は一を生じ、一は二を生じ、二は三を生じ、三は萬物を生ず。萬物は陰を負ひて陽を抱く。沖氣以て和することをなす。人の惡む所は、唯孤寡不轂のみ。而して王公は以て稱となす。故に、物或はこれを損して益し、或はこれを益して損するなり。人の敎ふる所は、我もまたこれを敎ふ。强梁なる者は、その死を得ず。吾れ以て敎の父となさんとす。

43. Overcoming

四十三章

Water overcomes the stone;
Without substance it requires no opening;
This is the benefit of taking no action.
Yet benefit without action,
And experience without abstraction,
Are practiced by very few.

天下の至柔は、天下の至堅を馳騁し、無有は無間に入る。吾は是を以て無爲の益あることを知るなり。不言の敎と無爲の益とには、天下これに及ぶこと希し。

44. Contentment

四十四章

Health or reputation: which is held dearer?
Health or possessions: which has more worth?
Profit or loss: which is more troublesome?
Great love incurs great expense,
And great riches incur great fear,
But contentment comes at no cost;
Who knows when to stop
Does not continue into danger,
And so may long endure.

名と身とは孰れか親しきぞ。身と貨とは孰れか多なるぞ。得と亡とは孰れか病なるぞ。甚だ愛すれば必ず大いに費え、多く藏すれば必ず厚く亡ふ。足ることを知れば辱められず。止まることを知れば殆からず。以て長久なるべし。

45. Quiet

四十五章

Great perfection seems incomplete,
But does not decay;
Great abundance seems empty,
But does not fail.
Great truth seems contradictory;
Great cleverness seems stupid;
Great eloquence seems awkward.
As spring overcomes the cold,
And autumn overcomes the heat,
So calm and quiet overcome the world.

大成は缺けたるがごときも、その用は弊ならず。大盈は沖しきがごときも、その用は窮まらず。大直は屈せるがごとく、大功は拙なるがごとく、大辯は訥なるがごとし。躁は寒に勝ち、靜は熱に勝つも、淸靜は天下の正たり。

46. Horses

四十六章

When a nation follows the Way,
Horses bear manure through its fields;
When a nation ignores the Way,
Horses bear soldiers through its streets.
There is no greater mistake than following desire;
There is no greater disaster than forgetting contentment;
There is no greater sickness than seeking attainment;
But one who is content to satisfy his needs
Finds that contentment endures.

天下に道あれば、走馬を却けて以て糞するも、天下に道なければ、戎馬は郊に生ぜん。罪は欲すべきよりも大なるはなく、禍は足ることを知らざるよりも大なるはなく、咎は得んと欲するより大なるはなし。故に、足ることを知るの足るは、常に足るなり。

47. Knowing

四十七章

Without taking a step outdoors
You know the whole world;
Without taking a peep out the window
You know the colour of the sky.
The more you experience,
The less you know.
The sage wanders without knowing,
Sees without looking,
Accomplishes without acting.

戶より出でざるも天下を知り、牖より窺はずして天道を見る。その出づること彌遠ければ、その知ること彌少し。是を以て聖人は行かずして知り、見ずして名に、爲さずして成すなり。

48. Inaction

四十八章

The follower of knowledge learns as much as he can every day;
The follower of the Way forgets as much as he can every day.
By attrition he reaches a state of inaction
Wherein he does nothing, but nothing remains undone.
To conquer the world, accomplish nothing;
If you must accomplish something,
The world remains beyond conquest.

學を爲むれば日に益し、道を爲むれば日々に損す。これを損してまた損し、以て爲すなきに至る。爲すなくして而も爲さざることなきなり。故に、天下を取るには、常に事なきを以てす。事あるに及べば、以て天下を取るに足らざるなり。

49. People

四十九章

The sage does not distinguish between himself and the world;
The needs of other people are as his own.
He is good to those who are good;
He is also good to those who are not good,
Thereby he is good.
He trusts those who are trustworthy;
He also trusts those who are not trustworthy,
Thereby he is trustworthy.
The sage lives in harmony with the world,
And his mind is the world’s mind.
So he nurtures the worlds of others
As a mother does her children.

聖人には常の心なく、百姓の心を以て心となす。善なる者は吾これを善とし、不善なる者も吾またこれを善とす。徳善なればなり。信なる者は吾これを信とし、不信なる者も吾またこれを信とす。徳信なればなり。聖人の天下にあるや、惵惵として天下のために、その心を渾にす。百姓は皆その耳目を注ぐ。聖人は皆これを孩にす。

50. Death

五十章

Men flow into life, and ebb into death.
Some are filled with life;
Some are empty with death;
Some hold fast to life, and thereby perish,
For life is an abstraction.
Those who are filled with life
Need not fear tigers and rhinos in the wilds,
Nor wear armour and shields in battle;
The rhinoceros finds no place in them for its horn,
The tiger no place for its claw,
The soldier no place for a weapon,
For death finds no place in them.

生に出れば(これ)死に入るなり。生の徒は、十に三あり。死の徒は、十に三あり。民の生んとして、動もすれば死地に之く(もの)、また十に三あり。それ何の故ぞ。その生を生とすることの厚きを以てなり。蓋し聞く、善く生を攝する者は、陸行するも、兕虎に遇はず。軍に入るも、甲兵を避けずと。兕はその角を投ずるところなく、虎はその爪を措くところなく、兵もその刃を容るるところなき(がため)なり。それ何の故ぞ。その死地なきを以てなり。